A few / few and a little / little

A few/ few употребляются с исчисляемыми существительными во множественном числе.

A few обозначает ‘несколько, но достаточно.’

e.g. There are a few oranges left. We can make some orange juice. – Осталось несколькоапельсинов. Мы можем сделать сок.

Few обозначает ‘мало, почти нет’ и для усиления может употребляться с наречием very.

e.g. There are (very) few biscuits in the box. It’salmostempty. – В коробке осталось (очень) мало печенья. Она почти пуста.

A little/ little употребляются с неисчисляемыми существительными.

A little обозначает ‘немного, но достаточно’.

e.g. She’s got a little time. Shecangoshopping. – У неё есть немного времени. Она может пройтись по магазинам.

Little обозначает ‘мало, почти нет’ и для усиления может употребляться с наречием very.

e.g. We’ve got (very) little coffee. There’s not enough for all of us. – У нас (очень) мало кофе. Нам всем не хватит.

Exercise 12.Вставьте few/ a few/ little/ a little.

Complete the sentences with few/ a few/ little/ a little.

1. We must be quick. We have ____ time.

2. We must go shopping. There’s very _____ food in the fridge.

3. Do you mind if I ask you ____ questions?

4. This town is not a very interesting place to visit, so ____ tourists come here.

5. It’s cold. That’s why there are very ____ children in the park today.

6. 'Would you like ____ milk in your coffee?' 'Yes, please'

7. This is a very boring place to live. There's ____ to do.

8. 'Have you ever been to Paris?' 'Yes, I've been there ____ times.'

9. Listen carefully. I'm going to give you ____ advice.

10. I don't think Jill would be a good teacher. She's got ____ patience.

11. I’m sorry. I’ll be _____ late. We’re having _____ problems at work.

12. Do you need _____ more days to think about my proposal.

Exercise 13. Вставьтеmuch/ many/ few/ little.

1. He isn't very popular. He has ____. friends.

2. Ann is very busy these days. She has ____ free time.

3. Did you take ____ photographs when you were on holiday?

4. I'm not very busy today. I haven't got ____ things to do.

5. The museum was very crowded. There were too ____ people.

6. Most of the town is modern. There are ____ old buildings.

7. The weather has been very dry recently. We've had … rain.

8. I don’t drink _____ milk.

9. There is _____ luggage in the airport.

Exercise 14. Вставьте some/ any/much/ many/ a lot of/ (a) few/ (a) little.

1. Please don’t put ____ pepper on the meat. I don’t like spicy food.

2. There were ____ plates on the table. We needed to put ____ more.

3. ‘Did she write you ____ letters from the country?’ – ‘Yes, she wrote____.’

4. He got a satisfactory mark. Only ____ of his answers were correct.

5. I have ____ time, so I can’t go with you.

6. He didn’t have ____ English books at home so he had to go to the library for more books.

7. I don’t have ____ bags. Just ____ , perhaps one or two.

8. ‘Do we have ____ chalk?’ – ‘Yes, we have ____ chalk here.’

9. Oh, we don’t need _____ minced beef for this pie, just _____.

10. I hate onion so don’t cut _____ of it. But I like _____ pepper in any meat dish.

11. ‘There are ____cafés in the centre of the town.’ – ‘How _____?’

12. ‘Have you got _____ apples?’ – ‘No, just _____.’

Exercise 15.Выберите правильное слово.

А

1. A: When will you be back?

B: Soon. I’m only going away for a few / a little days.

2. A: How do you like your coffee?

B: I think you’ve put too many / too much milk in it.

3. A: When can I come and visit you?

B: Come on every / any Tuesday. I’m free on that day.

4. A: What would you like to eat?

B: Can I have some / any of that cake, please? It looks delicious.

5. A: Who’s coming to the party?

B: I’ve invited everyone / anyone from the office.



6. A: Do you know many / much foreign people?

B: No. Actually, I know very few / a few.

7. A: I’ve lost my keys. I can’t find them anywhere / nowhere.

B: Don’t worry. I’m sure they’re everywhere / somewhere.

8. A: I asked everyone / someone, but nobody / anybody wants to help me with my project.

B: Okay, I’ll give you no / some help.

9. A: Did you buy the biscuits I wanted?

B: No, they didn’t have any / no in the supermarket.

B

1. There aren't no / any buses today because of a strike.

2. There's not much / many traffic today. It's usually busier.

3. People shouldn't drink some / any alcohol at all if they're going to drive.

4. I've been sailing a few / little times.

5. I know taxi drivers have a bad reputation, but very few / little are actually dishonest.

6. The government has made very little /few progress in reducing pollution from transport.

7. Too much / many goods are transported by lorry.

8. There's so much / many bad news on TV that I've stopped watching it.

9. There are some / any cycle lanes where I live, but not much / many.

10. To get to the city centre, you can take many / any bus from the stop near my house. They all got here.

Exercise 16. Впишите в пропуски только одно слово.

1. If ____ has ____ questions, I‘ll be pleased to answer them.

2. She’s lucky. She has ____ problems.

3. There aren't ______ things to do there.

4. There was so _____ noise in the room that I couldn't hear what anyone was saying.

5. He can't give _____ information yet – only the date of the course. He needs to speak to a _____ people first.

6. There's a ______ of anger about the train strike.

7. Things are not going so well for her. She has ____ problems.

8. I fainted because I'd eaten so_____ food.

9. Is ____ here to see me?

10. If ___ wants to leave early, they can.

11. It doesn't cost _____ money to take a taxi here.

12. Can I have ____ sugar, please?

13. Has ____ seen my bag?

14. Can you see ____ in my eye?

15. I’m sorry for ____ trouble I’ve caused.

Exercise 17. Исправьте ошибки.

1. Could you lend me any money, please?

2. How many time have we got left?

3. There aren’t too much chocolates in the box.

4. I don’t know nothing about chemistry.

5. He’s looking for anything in the cupboard.

6. I want to go nowhere nice and quiet for my holidays.

7. I don’t need some help with my homework.

8. You can something you want. Just ask for it.

9. Did you catch some fish in the river?

10. Everybody know that the Earth is round.

Exercise 18. Переведите следующие предложения на английский язык.

1. ‘В классе есть кто-нибудь?’ ‘Да, там есть несколько студентов.’

2. В саду никого нет. Все в доме.

3. ‘В столе есть что-нибудь?’ ‘Нет, в нём ничего нет. Он пуст.’

4. В их библиотеке есть несколько книг на английском языке.

5. В вашей библиотеке есть какие-нибудь книги Джека Лондона?

6. Мне нужно Вам кое-что сказать, но я не хочу, чтобы нас кто-либо слышал.



7. На следующий день мой брат знал всех, и не было никого, кто не знал бы его.

8. Мне так скучно! Я хочу поехать куда-нибудь, где интересно и есть кто-нибудь интересный, с кем можно поговорить.

9. Он надеется, что ему поможет кто-нибудь из его друзей. Но у него слишком мало друзей. Я думаю, что ему никто не поможет, кроме меня.

10. ‘У нас есть хоть какие-нибудь продукты в холодильнике?’ ‘Есть, но очень мало. Но есть немного овощей, чтобы приготовить суп.’

11. Мы растратили слишком много денег в отпуске в прошлом году. Мы не надеемся поехать хоть куда-нибудь в этом году.

12. Вы можете сесть на любой автобус – все они идут в центр города.


Артикли (Articles)

Артикль – это часть речи, которая уточняет значение существительного, но собственного значения не имеет и на русский язык не переводится. Существует три артикля: определенный, неопределенный и нулевой.

Неопределенный артикль употребляется только с исчисляемыми существительными в единственном числе. Он представляет предмет как один из класса ему подобных: e.g. This is a pen.

Неопределенный артикль употребляется если предмет упоминается в разговоре или повествовании впервые с существительными, не имеющими определения, или имеющими определения описательного характера: e.g. Yesterday I met a beautiful girl in the club.

Неопределенный артикль имеет форму a перед существительными, начинающимися с согласной: a plate, и форму an перед существительными, начинающимися с гласной: an apple.

Неопределенный артикль используется:

1. С названиями профессий: e.g. I am a student. My brother is an engineer.

2. С выражениями количества a few, a little, a dozen, a pair, a lot of: e.g. I want to buy a pair of trainers for jogging.

3. В восклицательных предложениях с исчисляемыми существительными: e.g. What a lovely day! What a shame!

4. С определенными фразами, указывающими, как часто происходит какое-либо действие: e.g. We play tennis once aweek. They go on holiday twice a year.

5. В ряде устойчивых сочетаний: as a rule, as a result, for a while, in a low (loud) voice, to be at a loss, to be in a hurry, to go for a walk, to have a good time, It is a pity. It is a pleasure. It is a shame! What a shame!

Определенный артикль произносится как [ði:] перед словом, начинающимся с гласной, и как [ðe] перед словом, начинающимся с согласной. Определенный артикль употребляется перед любым нарицательным существительным в единственном или множественном числе, если оно уже известно слушающему: e.g. She has a house. Thehouse is nice.

Определенный артикль используется:

1. Если предмет единственный в своём роде: e.g. the sun, the moon, the Queen, the President.

2. Перед прилагательными в превосходной степени и порядковыми числительными: e.g. He is the richest man in the world. She lives on thethird floor.

3. Перед названиями музыкальных инструментов: e.g. the piano, theguitar, thesaxophone.

4. Перед словами morning, evening, afternoon:e.g. He goes to work in the morning.

5. Перед словами, обозначающими национальность: e.g. the French

6. Перед фамилиями (в форме множественного числа), называющими всю семью в целом: e.g. the Johnsons.

Нулевой артикль употребляется перед неисчисляемыми существительными, обозначающими вещество или абстрактное понятие: e.g. There is milk in the cup. She looked at her child with kindness and love.

Нулевой артикль используется:

1. Перед исчисляемыми существительными во множественном числе, о которых слушателю неизвестно: e.g. There were boys and girls in the classroom.

2. Перед исчисляемыми существительными во множественном числе, обозначающими название профессии группы людей: e.g. We are pupils.

Внимание!Перед исчисляемыми существительными во множественном числе (если важно подчеркнуть значение их количества) вместо «нулевого артикля» ставится неопределенное местоимение (some, any) или количественное числительное: e.g. I have three apples.There are some apples on the plate.

3. Перед неисчисляемыми существительными (названия веществ, абстрактные понятия), употребленными в общем смысле: e.g. I like milk.

Внимание!Перед неисчисляемыми существительными (вещественными), если хотят подчеркнуть некоторое их количество, употребляется неопределенное местоимение some, any: e.g. There is some milk in the jug. Is there any sugar in the sugar bowl?

4. С именами и фамилиями людей, титулами, рангами, словами, обозначающими семейные отношения и общественное положение: e.g. John Black, Doctor Brown, Miss Smith, Aunt Polly, Captain White, Professor Higgins.

5. Для обозначения времени принятия пищи, детских и спортивных игр, времени года, изучаемого в школе или институте предмета: I always have coffee for breakfast. We have lunch at one o’clock in summer. Golf is a relaxing game. He is good at Physics.

6. В восклицательных предложениях с неисчисляемыми существительными или с существительными во множественном числе: e.g. What nasty weather! What clever children!

7. Способ передвижения: by car, by bus, on foot.

8. В ряде устойчивых сочетаний: at home, in/to bed, at/to work, at/to school, at/to university, in/to hospital, at peace, at war, at table, by chance, by heart, by mistake, by means of, on time.

Exercise 19. Закончите предложения, вставляя артикли a, an, the, где необходимо.

A

1. There is ____ tree in ____ garden. ____tree is very old.

2. She is ____ doctor. Her children are ____students.

3. ‘How do you get there?’ ‘By____ train and my friends go there on ____foot.’

4. ‘Would you like _____ chocolate?’ ‘No, ____ sweets are bad for me.’

5. If you don’t want to go to _____ doctor you should go to _____ bed at least.

6. Would you like to see _____ photos I took on holiday?

7. I don’t like Coke but my friends drink it five times ____ day.

8. It's _____ best film I have seen for ages.

9. I don’t like _____ food in McDonalds.

10. Have you got this T-shirt in ____ size S?

11. What would you like for ____lunch?

12. ____ Sun is ____ star.

13. I’d like to go to ____ sea in summer.

14. ____crime is ____ problem in ____ big cities.

15. ____ French are famous for their taste.

B

1. ____ tennis is my favourite sport. I play once or twice ____ week if I can, but I’m not ____ very good player.

2. I won’t be home for ____ dinner this evening. I’m meeting some friends after ___ work and we’re going to ___ cinema.

3. There was ____ accident as I was going ____ home last night.

4. Do you know ____ Wilsons? They're ____ very nice couple.

5. I’ve got two brothers. ____ older one is training to be ____ pilot. ____ younger one is still at _____ school. When he leaves ____ school, he hopes to go to ____ university to study ____ Law.

6. Do you know ____ Professor ____ Brown's ____ phone number?

Exercise 20. Закончите предложения, вставляяартикли a, an, the, где необходимо.

A

1. We wrote____ dictation. ____dictation was long.

2. Did you find _____ sweater you were looking for?

3. _____ couple of days ago we went to ___café. _____café is situated in _____ centre of town.

4. Ken is _____ sailor. He spends most of his life in _____sea.

5. ____ police have arrested _____ most dangerous criminal of ____ world.

6. Could I borrow ____ piece of paper to make notes on?

7. They tell me that ____ honesty is the best policy.

8. Look at ____ sea. Isn't it beautiful?

9. My brother is in ____ army.

10. ‘How much are those potatoes?’ ‘₤ 1.20 ____Kilo.’

11. Your bag is ____ same color as mine.

12. ‘Where is Tom?’ ‘He is in ____ room 509.’

13. All children go to ____school at ____ age of 6.

14. ____vegetables are good for you.

B

A: Is there (1) ___ post-office near (2) ___ house you live in?

B: Yes, there is. Go to (3) ___ corner of (4) ___ street along which (5) ___ trains run. Then turn to (6) ___ left and walk down (7) ___ street. Do not cross (8) ___ street. You will see “Post-and- Telegraph Office”.

A: Thank you very much. I must buy (9) ___ stamps, send (10) ___ telegram and ask whether they receive (11) ___ parcels there. I want to send (12) ___ parcel to (13) ___ old friend. It will be her birthday in (14) ___ couple of days. Perhaps you can tell me where I can find (15) ___ shop to buy (16) ___ presents?

B: Yes, certainly. There’s (17) ___ very good shop not far from here. I am sure you will find (18) ___ nice present there.

Exercise 21. Найдите шесть ошибок употребления артиклей и исправьте их.

1. Sun rises in the east and sets in the west.

2. That's the car I mentioned before.

3. Put those plates in a washing-up bowl, will you.

4. He's most arrogant man I have ever met.

5. I'd like a glass of wine and a few olives, please.

6. The weather has been marvelous recently.

7. Money has been the cause of a lot of our problems.

8. Australia was everything I imagined it would be.

9. Would you mind if I took car to work today?

10. We're thinking of going to cinema tonight.

11. Are you going to take dog for a walk?

12. Let's go for a drive in country.


Definite and zero article

С именами собственными может употребляться либо нулевой, либо определенный артикль в зависимости от значения существительного.

определенный артикль нулевой артикль
1. Названия океанов, морей, озер, рек, проливов и кораблей: the Pacific Ocean, the Baltic Sea, The English Channel, the Volga, the Ontario, the Titanic. С названиями заливов: Hudson Bay. Со словом «озеро» Lake Ontario
2. Названия горных цепей, групп островов, пустынь: The Urals, the British Isles, the Sahara. С названиями островов, горных вершин: Cuba, Elbrus.
3. Названия городских учреждений (театров, музеев, гостиниц, банков): the Hermitage, the Savoy, the Bolshoi Theatre. С названиями аэропортов, вокзалов, улиц, парков, площадей: Oxford Street, Central Park, Trafalgar Square, London Airport, Victoria Station.
4. Названия государственных учреждений и организаций: the Supreme Court С названиями авиалиний, компаний: Fiat Sony Kodak British Airways IBM
5. Названия англоязычных газет: the Times Названия англоязычных журналов: I bought Cosmopolitan yesterday.
6. С составными названиями стран и географическими названиями во множественном числе: the United States of America, the Philippines, the Great Lakes. С названиями городов, континентов, стран, штатов, регионов: Paris, Australia, France, Texas, Tuscany.
7. В словосочетаниях с предлогом of: the University of London. Словосочетания с названием города: London University London Zoo

Exercise 22. Закончите предложения, вставляя артикли a, an, the, где необходимо.

A

1. I’d like to swim in____ Baltic Sea.

2. Tom bought _____ car. _____car is rather old.

3. All tourists try to see _____ St. Paul’s Cathedral and _____ Tower of London.

4. Is that _____ new carpet you were telling me about?

5. We're going to _____ Kenya at Christmas.

6. I had ____ sandwich and ____ cup of____ tea for ____breakfast this morning. ____sandwich was nice, but ____ tea was terrible.

7. There are millions of stars in ____ space.

8. She said that _____ carrots were her favourite vegetable.

9. London is ____ capital of ____ United Kingdom.

10. It can be dangerous to swim in ____ sea.

11. Did you like ____apple pie we had yesterday?

12. ____ young need more help from ____ government.

13. A lot of people are passengers of ____British Airways.

14. ____ Sahara is ____ famous desert.

15. ____ Cambridge University is one of ____ oldest universities in ____ world.

B

1. I can play ____ guitar. I’d like to have ____ guitar.

2. ____elephant is ____ biggest of all animals.

3. We called ____ doctor. We called____ Doctor Johnson as usually.

4. Sweden is in ____ northern Europe, Spain is in ____ south.

5. A: What’s ____ name of ____ hotel where you’re staying?

B: ____ Imperial. It’s in ____ Queen Street in ____ city centre. It’snear ____ station.

6. ____ President is the most powerful person in ____ United States.

7. ____ President Kennedy was assassinated in 1963.

Exercise 23. В некоторых предложениях ошибочно пропущен определенный артикль (the). Исправьте предложение, если это необходимо.

1. Everest was first climbed in 1953.

2. Milan is in north of Italy.

3. Africa is much larger than Europe.

4. Last year I visited Mexico and United States.

5. South of England is warmer than north.

6. Portugal is in western Europe.

7. France and Britain are separated by Channel.

8. Jim has travelled a lot in Middle East.

9. Chicago is on Lake Michigan.

10. The highest mountain in Africa is Kilimanjaro (5,895 meters).

Exercise 24. Выберите правильный ответ из таблицы. Употребите определенный артикль (the), где необходимо. Первое предложение дано в качестве образца.

continents Africa Asia Australia Europe North America South America countries Canada Denmark Indonesia Sweden Thailand United States oceans and seas Atlantic Indian Ocean Pacific Black Sea Mediterranean Red Sea mountains Alps Andes Himalayas Rockies Urals rivers and canals Amazon Rhine Danube Thames Nile Volga Suez Canal Panama Canal

1. What do you have to cross to travel from Europe to America? the Atlantic Ocean

2. Where is Argentina?

3. Which is the longest river in Africa?

4. Of which country is Stockholm the capital?

5. Of which country is Washington the capital?

6. What is the name of the mountain range in the west of North America?

7. What is the name of the sea between Africa and Europe?

8. Which is the smallest continent in the world?

9. What is the name of the ocean between America and Asia?

10. What is the name of the ocean between Africa and Australia?

11. Which river flows through London?

12. Which river flows through Vienna, Budapest and Belgrade?

13. Of which country is Bangkok the capital?

14. What joins the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans?

15. Which is the longest river in South America?

Exercise 25. Выберите правильную форму. Первое предложение дано в качестве образца.

1. Have you ever been to British Museum / the British Museum? (the... is correct)

2. Hyde Park / The Hyde Park is a very large park in central London.

3. Another park in central London is St James's Park / the St James's Park.

4. Grand Hotel / The Grand Hotel is in Baker Street / the Baker Street.

5. We flew to New York from Gatwick Airport / the Gatwick Airport near London.

6. Frank is a student at Liverpool University / the Liverpool University.

7. If you're looking for a good clothes shop, I would recommend Harrison's / the Harrison's.

8. If you're looking for a good pub, I would recommend Ship Inn / the Ship Inn.

9. Statue of Liberty / The Statue of Liberty is at the entrance to New York harbour / the New York harbour.

10. You should go to Science Museum / the Science Museum. It's very interesting.


5. ГЛАГОЛЬНЫЕ МОДЕЛИ. Verb+to/ Verb+ing. СПОСОБЫ ВЫРАЖЕНИЯ БУДУЩЕГО ВРЕМЕНИ (FUTURE FORMS)

5.1. Что такое Verb Patterns? Речь идет о связях сказуемого в предложении. Как в русском, так и в английском предложении в качестве прямого дополнения после сказуемого обычно выступает имя существительное или местоимение: e.g. I saw her yesterday. – Я видел её вчера.

Эту же функцию в русском предложении может выполнять инфинитив (начальная форма глагола): e.g. Она попросила перезвонитьпозже.

В английском языке большинство глаголов тоже требуют после себя инфинитива в качестве прямого дополнения. Следует отметить, что в английском языке инфинитив, как правило, употребляется с частицей to: e.g. I wantto buy a new car. She promisedto come in time.

Конструкция verb + to…(infinitive)встречается в том случае, когда глагол, выполняющий функцию прямого дополнения, стоит после следующих глаголов:

choose promise help agree
decide manage hope refuse
forget need try would love (‘d love)
ask allow want would like (‘d like)

e.g. I agreedto lendhim money. We decidednot to go outbecause of the weather.

Инфинитив также употребляется после выражений be going и be able: e.g. He is going to bea doctor.

Без частицы toинфинитив употребляется:

- после модальныхглаголов can/could, may/might, must, should;

- после вспомогательных глаголов will/would, do/don’t, does/doesn’t;

-после глаголов let ‘позволять, разрешать’ и make ‘заставлять’.

e.g. She candancewell. My parents don’t letmewatch TV late at night.

Однако есть ряд глаголов, после которых в качестве прямого дополнения употребляется

-ing –форма:

like enjoy stop can’t stand
dislike hate mind avoid
love finish suggest deny

e.g. Would you mindclosingthe window?

После глаголов begin, start, continue может употребляться как герундий, так и инфинитив:

e.g. Ann beganto sing her favourite song. Ann begansinging in her early years.

Exercise 1. Раскройте скобки, поставив глаголы в правильную форму.

A

1. I love ____ (visit) other countries.

2. What have you decided ____ (do)?

3. I’m trying ____ (work). Please stop ____ (talk).

4. I make my daughter ____ (have) breakfast every morning.

5. The weather was nice, so I suggested ____ (have) a walk.

6. I’m tired. I want ____ (go) to bed immediately.

7. Don’t forget ____ (send) me a postcard when you’re on holiday.

8. When I was at school my parents didn’t let me ____ (go) to parties at the weekend.

9. I don’t mind ____ (travel) by train but I hate ____ (fly).

10. We invited Jane to the party but she didn’t want ___ (come).

11. Chris loves ____ (act). He hopes ____ (be) famous one day.

12. You must stop ____ (work) long hours. It’s bad for you.

B

1. They were very angry and refused ____ (speak) to me.

2. Why did you start ____ (cry)?

3. Will you ____ (buy) some more vegetables?

4. I can’t ____ (see) you on Saturday. I promised ____ (take) my children to the circus.

5. I began ____ (learn) English when I was seven.

6. What would you like ____ (do) this evening?

7. Let me ____ (help) you with your homework.

8. Have you finished ____ (clean) the kitchen?

9. Did you know that Scott is going ____ (ask) Laura ____ (marry) him?

10. Tony avoided ____ (answer) my question.

11. Did she make you ____ (learn) all these words by heart?

12. She can’t stand ____ (argue) with people.

Exercise 2. Заполните пропуски инфинитивом данных ниже глаголов с частицей to или без неё.

be open leave eat hear buy have move help take get see go

1. ‘What time do you want ____ the house?’ ‘At about 8.’

2. I’ve saved enough money. Now I can ____ that house.

3. I’m too tired to walk home. I’ll ____ a taxi.

4. It was a nice day, so we decided ____ for a walk.

5. I wonder where Sue is. She promised not ____ late.

6. Could you ____the door, please?

7. There was a lot of traffic, but we managed ____ to the airport in time.

8. I’m not good at writing an essay, so she agreed ____ me with it.

9. I was feeling ill yesterday. I couldn’t ____ anything.

10. They insisted that we should ____ dinner with them.

11. I hope ____ from you soon. Best wishes, Peter.

12. He is very busy, so I don’t think he will be able ____ us next week.

13. After graduation from the university, I’d like ____ to another city.


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