A. Find international words in the text and write them out. Learn their correct pronunciation.


B. Give Russian equivalents to the following word combinations:

to bring together buyers and sellers; to meet physically; to be transacted over the telephone; a shorthand expression; the low hamburger price; to satisfy your appetite; to be in the business; a suitable part-time job; to be hardly worth working at all; unskilled job; to cover the cost of running the cafe; to contract a disease; to bid up the price of beef; to allocate resources; labour market; wholesale.

C. Give English equivalents to the word combinations:

подчиняться изменению цен; цены на товары и услуги регу­лируются, для того чтобы гарантировать...; позволить обществу решить проблемы; цена достаточно высока, чтобы дать возмож­ность...; в чужую пользу; сделать возможным; продавать гамбур­геры по выгодной цене; за счет средств на представительские расходы; цены руководят вашим решением; быть вынужденным поднять цену; перераспределять ресурсы.

D. Match the words from A with their synonyms from B.

suppose, profitable, precise, rich, several, desire, cafe, fast, stock market, consumption, allocate, reconcile, unskilled, viewpoint adjust, paying, wealthy, point of view, distribute, unqualified, assume, quick, coffee-house, a number of, use, exact, stock exchange, wish

E. Write the opposites of the words and phrases:

a full-time job, skilled, to buy, remote, scarce, fast, convenient, cheap, limited, low, possible, profit, profitable, suitable, to like, to raise, to encourage, retail.

F. Look at the article and fulfil the tasks.

Paragraph 1. What words have the following meanings:

1) at a distance; 2) of the neighbourhood; 3) carried out, done?

Paragraph 2. Can you explain in your own words the writer's definition of markets?

Paragraph 3. What words have the following meanings:

1) ask for; 2) make certain that?

Paragraph 4. Using the words from the paragraph complete the following statements.

1) I quite like lamb but really I ... beef. 2) He was a very keen student. He ... most of his time to his studies. 3) I don't like the

canteen, but it's more ... than going out to a cafe. 4) I'm not in ... of long and expensive lunches. 5) Please ... that your essays reach me on time. 6) A good degree should ... you to get a job.

Paragraph 5. Explain the meaning of the words and phrases:

1) rent; 2) profit; 3) part-time job.

What word combination has the following meaning: "a system that allows someone who works for a company to spend the company's money rather than their own on hotels, meals, etc."?

Paragraph 6. What words have the following meanings:

1) buy; 2) illness; 3) managing; 4) put up; 5) rareness?

Paragraph 7. Explain the meaning of the phrases:

1) labour market; 2) wholesale (meat) market.

Grammar Focus

A. Study the following speech patterns.

Enable someone to do sth

Markets and prices enable society to solvethe problems of what, how and for whom to produce. This will enable users to conduct

live video conversations.

Ensure that

Prices of goods and resources adjust to ensure thatscarce resources are used to produce those goods and services that society demands. Our new research strategy ensures thatwe get the best possible results.

Have (something / nothing) to do with

What does this have to do withmarkets and prices? Most of the articles have to do withAmerica's role in the world since the end of the Cold War. I'm quite sure Nancy's resignation has nothing to do withher health.

In favour of

The price of steak is high enough to ensure that society answers the "for whom" question about lunchtime steaks in-favour ofsomeone else. Those in favour ofthe proposal, please raise your hands now.

Make sth possible

The price, the rent and the wages that must be paid still make it possible to sellhamburgers at a profit. The new technique made it possible to performthis operation.

Force someone to do sth

Hamburger producers would be forcedto raise prices.

Switch to

It might be more profitable to switch toluxury lunches for rich executives.

B. Complete the second sentence so that it has a similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. Do not change the word given.

1) Though Frank's native language was French, he could easily
and fluently start speaking English.

switchThough Frank's native language was French, ... .

2) Reynolds has always claimed that he wasn't connected with the
loss of the money.

nothingReynolds has always claimed that ....

3) Money from his aunt made it possible for John to start his own

enabledMoney from his aunt ....

4) Mr. Stone supported the proposed changes. favourMr.Stone spoke ....

5) What I do in my own time is none of your business. nothingWhat I do in my own time ... you.

6) His secretary made certain that he made all the necessary phone
calls every day.

ensuredHis secretary ... .

7) Three managers had to resign because of corruption scandals.
forcedThree managers ....

8) Access to the Internet gives an opportunity to make quick

possibleAccess to the Internet ... .

9) Senior workers stood up for the proposal.
favourSenior workers spoke ... .

C. Find conditional sentences in the article. Translate the sen­tences.

Expressing Conditions

A. Look at the list of possible future events and decide how
probable they are. Are they

— things which might happen?

— things which could happen in theory but probably won't happen in practice?

a) a head-hunter offers you another job; b) you get promoted; c) your company makes you redundant; d) you decide to start your own business; e) the president of your country invites you to dinner; f) you finish work early tomorrow; g) you become chairman of the company you work for; h) your English teacher gives you a lot of homework; i) you learn to speak perfect English; j) you get stuck in a lift; k) you buy a new car next year; 1) someone offers you a job in another country; m) your bank balance goes into the red; n) you win a million dollars.

B. Now make sentences about these possible events.

If you think something might happen, use a first conditional form. Example: If a head-hunter offers me another job, I'll accept in

case the salary is higher. If you think something is unlikely to happen, use a second condi­tional form.

Example: If I got promoted, I'd be delighted.

Diving Deeper

A. Give detailed answers to the following questions.

1. What is the example of a market where sellers and buyers actually meet? 2. How are households' decisions on what to buy reconciled? 3. Why are prices adjusted? 4. What problems do markets and prices solve for society? 5. Why is the cafe owner in business? 6. Why don't cafe owners have to pay high wages? 7. What makes the society put resources into hamburger production? 8. What would consumers do if hamburger prices rose? 9. How many markets does the writer say you are involved in if you buy a hamburger? 10. Does the writer give an exact description of a market?